Network Miscs

Network Miscs

Classes of IP Addresses, IP Broadcast and IP Multicast

http://compnetworking.about.com/od/workingwithipaddresses/l/aa042400b.htm

http://compnetworking.about.com/od/tcpiptutorials/a/ipaddrnotation.htm

IPv4 Address Classes:

The IPv4 address space can be subdivided into 5 classes - Class A, B, C, D and E. Each class consists of a contiguous subset of the overall IPv4 address range.

The values of the leftmost four bits of an IPv4 address determine its class as follows:

Class Leftmost bits Start address Finish address

A 0xxx 0.0.0.0 127.255.255.255

B 10xx 128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255

C 110x 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255

D 1110 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255

E 1111 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

IP Address Class E and Limited Broadcast

The IPv4 networking standard defines Class E addresses as reserved, meaning that they should not be used on IP networks. Nodes that try to use these addresses on the Internet will be unable to communicate properly.

A special type of IP address is the limited broadcast address 255.255.255.255. A broadcast involves delivering a message from one sender to many recipients. Senders direct an IP broadcast to 255.255.255.255 to indicate all other nodes on the local network (LAN) should pick up that message. This broadcast is 'limited' in that it does not reach every node on the Internet, only nodes on the LAN.

Technically, IP reserves the entire range of addresses from 255.0.0.0 through 255.255.255.255 for broadcast, and this range should not be considered part of the normal Class E range.

Some multicast group addresses are assigned as well-known addresses by the IANA. "These are called permanent host groups.

224.0.0.1 means "all systems on this subnet," and 224.0.0.2 means "all routers on this subnet."

The multicast address 224.0.1.1 is for NTP, the Network Time Protocol, 224.0.0.9 is for RIP-2.

IP Address Class D and Multicast

The IPv4 networking standard defines Class D addresses as reserved for multicast. Multicast is a mechanism for defining groups of nodes and sending IP messages to that group rather than to every node on the LAN (broadcast) or just one other node (unicast).

IP Loopback Address 127.0.0.1

As with broadcast, IP officially reserves the entire range from 127.0.0.0 through 127.255.255.255 for loopback purposes.

Zero Addresses

As with the loopback range, the address range from 0.0.0.0 through 0.255.255.255 should not be considered part of the normal Class A range. 0.x.x.x addresses serve no particular function in IP, but nodes attempting to use them will be unable to communicate properly on the Internet.

Private Addresses

The IP standard defines specific address ranges within Class A, Class B, and Class C reserved for use by private networks (intranets).

Class Private start address Private finish address

A 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255

B 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255

C 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255

IPv6 Addressing Notation

IPv6 addresses may be written in any of the full, shorthand or mixed notation. Many IPv6 addresses are extensions of IPv4 addresses. In these cases, the rightmost four bytes of an IPv6 address (the rightmost two byte pairs) may be rewritten in the IPv4 notation. for example E3D7::51F4:9BC8:192.168.100.32.

Promiscuous mode

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Promiscuous_mode

In computing, promiscuous mode or promisc mode is a configuration of a network card that makes the card pass all traffic it receives to the central processing unit rather than just packets addressed to it — a feature normally used for packet sniffing.

Each packet includes the hardware (Media Access Control) address. When a network card receives a packet, it normally drops it unless the packet is addressed to that card. In promiscuous mode, however, the card allows all packets through, thus allowing the computer to read packets intended for other machines or network devices.

Collision domain

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collision_domain

A collision domain is a physical network segment where data packets can "collide" with one another for being sent on a shared medium, in particular in the Ethernet networking protocol. A network collision is a scenario wherein one particular device sends a packet on a network segment, forcing every other device on that same segment to pay attention to it. Meanwhile, another device does the same, and the two competing packets are discarded and re-sent one at a time. This becomes a source of inefficiency in the network. [1]

Reverse DNS lookup

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_DNS_lookup

Computer networks use the Domain Name System to determine the IP address that is associated with a given domain name. This process is also known as forward DNS resolution. Reverse DNS lookup is the inverse process of this, the resolution of an IP address into its designated domain name.

Serial Line Internet Protocol

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Line_Internet_Protocol

The Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) is a mostly obsolete encapsulation of the Internet Protocol designed to work over serial ports and modem connections. It is documented in RFC 1055. On personal computers, SLIP has been largely replaced by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which is better engineered, has more features and does not require its IP address configuration to be set before it is established. On microcontrollers, however, SLIP is still the preferred way of encapsulating IP packets due to its very small overhead.

Point-to-Point Protocol

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-Point_Protocol

In networking, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is a data link protocol commonly used to establish a direct connection between two networking nodes. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption privacy, and compression.

Most Internet service providers (ISPs) use PPP for customer dial-up access to the Internet. Two encapsulated forms of PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA), are used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to connect Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Internet service.

Proxy ARP

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_ARP

Proxy ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is a technique by which a device on a given network answers the ARP queries for a network address that is not on that network. The ARP Proxy is aware of the location of the traffic's destination, and offers its own MAC address in reply, effectively saying, "send it to me, and I'll get it to where it needs to go." Serving as an ARP Proxy for another host effectively directs LAN traffic to the Proxy. The "captured" traffic is then typically routed by the Proxy to the intended destination via another interface or via a tunnel.

The process which results in the node responding with its own MAC address to an ARP request for a different IP address for proxying purposes is sometimes referred to as 'publishing'.


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