CSS

CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (that is, the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. The most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document, including SVG and XUL.

Advantages of CSS
Rich Styling - CSS allows for much richer document appearances than HTML ever allowed Style sheets can drastically reduce a web author's workload.

Ease of Use - style sheets centralize the commands for certain visual effects in one handy place, instead of scattering them throughout the document, so it's easier to type and change.

CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content from document presentation, including elements such as the layout, colors, and fonts. This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple pages to share formatting, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content (such as by allowing for tableless web design).
CSS can allow the same markup page to be presented in different styles for different rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice and on Braille-based, tactile devices.
Readers still can use a different style sheet to override the one the author has specified.

CSS specifies a priority scheme to determine which style rules apply if more than one rule matches against a particular element. In this so-called cascade, priorities or weights are calculated and assigned to rules, so that the results are predictable.

Compact File Size - CSS can help keep document sizes as small as possible, thereby speeding download times.
Preparing for the Future - the W3C is beginning to remove stylistic elements from HTML.
Bringing CSS and XHTML Together
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="sheet1.css" media="all" />
<style type="text/css">
@import url(sheet2.css);
h1 {color: maroon;}
</style>
Alternate style sheets
<link rel="alternate stylesheet" type="text/css" href="bigtext.css" title="Big Text" />
Inline Styles <p style="color: gray;">

It's important to understand various kinds of CSS selectors, CSS inheritance, and Cascading.
CSS selectors
Selectors are one of the most important aspects of CSS as they are used to "select" elements on an HTML page so that they can be styled.
Selectors
* Type selectors
* Class selectors
* ID selectors
* Descendant selectors
* Child selectors
* Universal selectors
* Adjacent sibling selectors
* Attribute selectors
* Pseudo-classes
* Pseudo-elements

Inheritance is the mechanism by which styles are applied not only to a specified element, but also to its descendants, CSS inheritance works on a property by property basis. When applied to an element in a document, a property with the value 'inherit' will use the same value as the parent element has for that property.


Resources:
CSS: The Definitive Guide
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets
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